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|نحو سياسات حماية اجتماعية مستدامة وشاملة للّاجئين/ات السوريين/ات في الأردن||Jalal Al Husseini||December, 2022||
تقدّم هذه الورقة البحثية تحليل حول كيفيّة تكيَّفَ نظام اللاجئين/ات في الأردن مع احتياجات اللاجئين/ات السوريين/ات من الحماية الاجتماعية، وإلى أيّ مدى. تعرض أوّلًا في مقدمتها خصائصهم/نّ الديموغرافية الرئيسية وتطوُّر وضعهم/نّ القانوني في الأردن منذ وصولهم/نّ إلى البلد في ۲۰۱٢/۲۰۱١. ومن هذا المنطلق، يُحلِّل القسمان الثاني والثالث الفُرَص والقيود القانونية والعملية المتعلّقة بإمكانية وصولهم/نّ إلى خدمات الحماية الاجتماعية، سواء بشكل خدمات المساعدة الاجتماعية (الحماية الاجتماعية من الفئة الأولى) و/أو كضمان اجتماعي يرتبط بالعمل النظامي (الحماية الاجتماعية من الفئة الثانية). أمّا القسم الرابع فيُلخِّص النتائج الرئيسية ويُقدِّم توصيات ترمي إلى تحسين الحماية الاجتماعية لصالح اللاجئين/ات السوريين/ات.
|Syrian Refugees, Migration, Jordan, Social policies, Inclusion Policies, Social Protection|
|Towards Durable and Inclusive Social Protection Policies for Syrian Refugees in Jordan||Jalal Al Husseini||December, 2022||
The briefing paper analyses how - and to what extent - Jordan’s refugee regime has adapted to the social protection needs of the Syrian refugee population. It first presents, by way of introduction, their main demographic characteristics and the evolution of their legal status in Jordan since their arrival in the country in 2011/2012. On this basis, the second and third sections analyse the legal and practical opportunities and limitations to their access to social protection services, either as social assistance services (SP1) and/or as formal employment-related social security (SP2). The fourth section summarises the main findings of the paper and puts forward recommendations designed to improve social protection on behalf of Syrian refugees.
|Syrian Refugees, Migration, Jordan, Social policies, Inclusion Policies, Social Protection|
|Towards the rise of the unprotected? Neoliberalism, social policies, and socio-economic contention in contemporary Jordan||Rossana Tufaro||November, 2022||
The Jordanian welfare and economic system underwent a drastic neo-liberal transition, sponsored by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and state policies that aimed at progressively dismantling the distributive welfare mechanisms as well as job provision at the basis of the hashemite authoritarian bargain. This paper provides a historical overview of the ways in which Jordan’s neoliberal transition has pushed the country into a continuous state of socio-economic contention, characterized by workers' mobilizations and the periodical resurgence of anti-government mass protests, and hence an understanding of the current social contention in the country.
|Jordan, Neo-liberalism, socio-economic demands, labour movement, Mobilisations, Social Movements|
|The Meaning(s) of Social Justice: Political Imaginaries from the October Movement in Lebanon||Nadim Haidar||October, 2022||
Lebanon has witnessed a massive protest movement in 2019, commonly referred to as the “October Revolution”. The social movement denounced the Lebanese political and economic system, and demanded social justice. This paper investigates the political imaginaries of the protestors and proposes a discursive analysis that probes into their motives and positions. It further examines the various understandings and interpretations of social justice that underpinned the actions and visions of the social movement’s participants. The paper also aims to uncover the ideological assumptions as well as political limitations of the political imaginaries engendered by the “October Revolution”.
|Lebanon, Social Justice, Socio-economic Rights, Political Imaginaries, Social Movements, October Protests|
|Crisis and Retirement: Elderly in the Public Sector are struggling to secure their needs||Luna Dayekh||September, 2022||
Building on the stories and experiences of four retired individuals in the military forces and public sector, this paper explores the limitations of the existing social insurance and pension schemes and questions their realities in light of the multiple and overlapping crises Lebanon is currently facing. The article highlights how the current crisis has brought considerable social and economic downgrading to public and military personnel, as the provided healthcare services and pension schemes are no longer adequate or a source of safety in their old age. The article concludes that the pension schemes are insufficient to ensure a dignified life for these individuals and their families.
|Lebanon, Social Protection, Poverty, Elderly, Pension, Retirement, Military Forces, Public Sector|
|Aging in Times of Crisis: Old Age Private Sector Workers Facing Growing Social Insecurity in Lebanon||Luna Dayekh||August, 2022||
The article sheds light on the gaps and weaknesses of Lebanon’s social protection system and demands adequate support for all citizens, particularly for older people. It shows that elderly, who make up more than 11 percent of the population in Lebanon, have been paying the price of a weak social protection system that suffers from gaps in legal and effective coverage and lacks sustainable funding. The article highlights that persons who have worked informally or in self-employment occupations all their life are not eligible for social protection and entitlements, and are therefore dependent on alternative forms of support, or need to continue working after the age of retirement. The article calls for a rights-based lifecycle social protection system in Lebanon that would include, among others, old-age pensions.
|Lebanon, Social Protection, Poverty, Elderly, Pension, Retirement, Informal Sector, Self-Employment|
|Extended Arenas of “Hirak”: Anti-Sectarian Electoral Contestation in Students and Syndicates’ Elections||Stephanie Daher||June, 2022||
This article underlines how and in what ways anti-sectarian independent groups competing in (university) students and syndicates elections against the traditional political parties set a precedent through their electoral contestations and mobilisations. This article demonstrates that these elections contributed to the creation of collective consciousness reflected by a generation of activists advocating for anti-sectarianism and demanding change of the system. The paper exhibits how student councils and syndicates acted as extended arenas of “Hirak” (in Arabic “movement”), protracting traditional street mobilisation, in their fundamental role in contesting the existing political system. It explains the articulation of the university students’ and syndicates’ movement and the October 2019 thawra.
|Lebanon, Activism, Emerging Political Actors, Students, Syndicates, Lebanese Sectarian System, Social movement|
|The Ration Card: A Response to the Economic Crisis in Lebanon. To what extent are cash transfer programs effective?||Luna Dayekh||May, 2022||
The brief examines the Ration Card Program (RCP), an emergency cash transfer program that was issued by the Lebanese government to assist the poor and vulnerable Lebanese population affected by the ongoing economic crisis. The brief first introduces the RCP and its beneficiaries, and shows the shortcomings of the RCP that provides little support to beneficiaries, excludes a large section of the population, and is not sustainable. The brief then suggests alternative approaches and recommendations to shift toward a sustainable social security protection framework that supports the population as a whole.
|Lebanon, socio-economic demands, Policy Intervention, cash transfers, ration card, Inclusive Social Security, Emergency Response|
|A Historical Mapping of Lebanese Organized Labor: Tracing trends, actors, and dynamics||Rossana Tufaro||November, 2021||
The paper provides a contextualized and easily accessible history of Lebanese organized labor from the mandate period up to this day. The paper is divided into six main sections, each corresponding to a distinct phase of the historical development of Lebanese organized labor. In each section, the paper identifies the main actors, demands, events, urgencies and constraints shaping the articulation and the trajectories of (de/) mobilization of workers’ collective agency and organization, so as to provide a cumulative and genealogical overview of the changes, continuities and peculiarities characterizing each phase. The paper builds for the most part on the piecemeal and dis-organic body of scholarship currently constituting the bulk of scholarly knowledge on Lebanese labor, in an attempt to provide a synthesis and an index thereof. In so doing, the paper aims at offering a directory and a ready-to-hand compendium for researchers, analyst and practitioners interested in Lebanese labor, and possibly contribute to (re)ignite interest in this still widely under-researched topic.
|Lebanon, Labor Rights & Livelihoods, labour movement, socio-economic demands, Policy Intervention, Activism|
|Possibilities and Challenges: Social Protection and COVID-19 Crisis in Jordan||Abdalhadi Alijla||November, 2021||
This report describes the different programmes and the mechanisms used to reach the country’s most vulnerable groups. It focuses specifically on informal workers, women, and the youth. The report also shows that Jordan has used its existing social protection systems to reach vulnerable people through emergency cash transfer programmes, either by expanding the already existing programme (Takaful) or creating new ones (Tamkin Iqtisadi, Himaya, Musanid). The Jordanian government’s responsiveness and effectiveness were conditioned and restrictive towards women, informal workers, and refugees. This report analyses the government's response in an attempt to identify gaps in the Jordanian social protection system and how it can be further developed
|Jordan, Social Protection System, Covid-19 in Jordan, Informal Economy in Jordan|