Conflict Resolution

The Power of Remembrance: Political parties, memory and learning about the past in Lebanon

This report investigates the use of memory by political parties in Lebanon in the political and educational domains.

The study was carried out in collaboration with forumZFD Lebanon and conducted in the framework of the programm area "Dealing with the Past". In the course of the research process Dr. Mara Albrecht and Dr. Basel Akar interviewed politicans of seven political parties, namely the Free Patriotic Movement (FPM), Hezbollah, Future Movement (FM), Lebanese Kataeb Party, Lebanese Forces (LF), Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) and Syrian Social Nationalist Part (SSNP).

Hizbollah’s Syria Conundrum

When Hizbollah – the Lebanese “Party of God” – threw its fighters into Syria in 2013, it sought primarily to save itself. Had the Assad regime collapsed or been defeated by U.S.-backed regional powers, it could have faced a hostile Sunni successor in Damascus and lost its essential arms channel from Iran. Today, its core objective of preserving the regime has been met, but there is no end in sight to the war.

The Burden of Scarce Opportunities: The Social Stability Context in Central and West Bekaa

This report introduces the conflict context in the Central Bekaa region. The area is of geostrategic importance as it contains the main border crossing to Syria and the Damascus highway, the international route from Beirut to Damascus. It is also home to around a quarter of all Syrian refugees in Lebanon. The area which once lived off services and trade through the border crossing and the Highway, agriculture, and agro-food industries, has been hit hard by the Syrian crisis and is burdened by the sharp decrease in economic opportunities and the doubling of its population.

The Conflict Context in Tripoli: Chronic Neglect, Increased Poverty, & Leadership Crisis.

This report provides an analysis of the current political, social and economic dynamics in Tripoli, Lebanon. The analysis begins with a brief overview of Tripoli’s history in the 20th century and the state’s securitisation efforts to contextualise the current social and political landscape. The report particularly focuses on how state policy towards the city, along with Tripoli’s special historical relationship with Syria, has contributed to ongoing armed conflict, economic stagnation, poverty and political fragmentation in Tripoli.

Renewed Conflict in Lebanon

This paper discusses the risk of a renewed civil strife in Lebanon as a result of the Syrian Crisis. It argues that the security situation inside Lebanon could deteriorate due to three interrelated spillover effects stemming from Syria’s ongoing civil war. These are; growing sectarian violence, a rising influx of refugees and the increasing paralysis of state institutions.

The Syrian Crisis and its Impact on Lebanon: A Conflict Analysis

Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) with its partner International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC) has been providing assistance to Syrian refugees in Lebanon and host communities since January 2014. In light of the size of influx of refugees from Syria to Lebanon NCA found it important to conduct a conflict analysis of the Syrian refugee crisis, the humanitarian interventions, the related transfer of resources and its impact on the Lebanon and the Lebanese host communities – especially those being targeted by NCA programmes.

How People Talk About the Lebanon Wars: A Study of the Perceptions and Expectations of Residents in Greater Beirut

This report examines variations in wartime experiences and the attitudes of residents in Greater Beirut regarding measures to confront Lebanon’s legacy of political violence. It documents how members of different segments of Lebanese society perceive and talk about issues relating to truth and memory, justice and accountability, reconciliation, and social repair. The study is based on 15 focus group discussions held in different neighbourhoods in Greater Beirut in 2013.

Local engagement with armed groups in the midst of violence

This second Accord Insight looks at how local actors organise to enter into dialogue with armed groups and challenge their use of violence. Case studies from Syria, Colombia, northern Uganda and Northern Ireland document the experiences of communities who choose to reach out to armed groups - often in advance of more formal negotiations and in situations of intense violence and embedded conflict - exploring why and how they interact and the challenges involved.

The balance-sheet of conflict: criminal revenues and warlords in Syria

The conflict in Syria is forging new forms of territorial control, and a political economy that is not unlike the patronage system that was previously fostered by the ruling Ba’ath party. As a result of the extended war efforts and the need for revenues to fund them, the national economy is now deeply affected by illicit activities such as trade in antiquities, oil and drugs, as well as smuggling, kidnapping, looting and extrajudicial land expropriations. Warlords and armed groups such as the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) and Jabhat al-Nusra must fund their military campaigns.

A Step towards Justice: Current accountability options for crimes under international law committed in Syria

This report aims to evaluate current accountability options by looking at the feasibility and potential impacts of each option. Analysis of the existing options helps shed light on whether it may be advisable to pursue justice while the conflict is ongoing and, if so, which methods are best suited for the current situation. By evaluating the positive and negative impacts as well as the practical and ethical concerns that could arise, this report aims to better inform the international community’s role in justice and accountability for Syria.

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